Word Summary
kai: and, even, also
Original Word: καί
Transliteration: kai
Phonetic Spelling: (kahee)
Part of Speech: Conjunction
Short Definition: and, even, also
Meaning: and, even, also
Strong's Concordance
and, also, both, but, even, for, if, or, so

Apparently, a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words -- and, also, both, but, even, for, if, or, so, that, then, therefore, when, yet.

Thayer's Greek Lexicon
STRONGS NT 2532: καί

καί, a conjunction, and; the most frequent by far of all the particles in the N. T. (On its uses see Winers Grammar, § 53, 3ff; Buttmann, 361 (310ff), and cf. Ellicott on Philippians 4:12; on the difference between it and τέ see under the word τέ at the beginning)

I. It serves as a copulative i. e. to connect (Latinet, atque, German und);

1. it connects single words or terms:

a. universally, as οἱ Φαρισαῖοι καί Σαδδουκαῖοι, Matthew 16:1; Θεός καί πατήρ, he who is God and Father (see Θεός, 3); ἐν καρδία καλή καί ἀγαθή, Luke 8:15; πολυμερῶς καί πολυτρόπως, Hebrews 1:1; it is repeated before single terms, to each of which its own force and weight is thus given: υἱοθεσία καί δόξα καί αἱ διαθῆκαι καί νομοθεσία καί λατρεία καί αἱ ἐπαγγελίαιt, Romans 9:4; ἁτια καί διακαια καί ἀγαθή, Romans 7:12; add, Matthew 23:23; Luke 14:21; John 16:8; Acts 15:20, 29; Acts 21:25; Hebrews 9:10; Revelation 5:12; Revelation 18:12f; cf. Winers Grammar, 519f (484).

b. it connects numerals; and so that (contrary to the more common usage) the greater number precedes: δέκα καί ὀκτώ, Luke 13:4, 11 (but in both passages, L and Tr brackets, WH omits καί; Tdf. δεκαοκτώ), 16; τεσσαράκοντα καί ἕξ, John 2:20; add, John 5:5 G T; Acts 13:20; cf. Winers Grammar, § 37, 4; (Lightfoot on Galatians 1:18; noteworthy also is its use in 2 Corinthians 13:1 (cf. Deuteronomy 19:15, the Sept.) ἐπί στόματος δύο μαρτύρων καί τριῶν (in Matthew 18:16 τριῶν cf. Winers Grammar, 440 (410) note) at the mouth of two witnesses and (should there be so many) of three; a similar use of καί, to lend a certain indefiniteness to the expression, occurs occasionally with other than numerical specifications, as James 4:13 σήμερον καί (Rst G; but L T Tr WH ) αὔριον; cf. Kühner, § 521, 2; Ebeling, Lex. Homer, under the word, p. 614a).

c. it joins to partitive words the general notion; so that it is equivalent to and in general, and in a word, in short: Πέτρος καί οἱ ἀπόστολοι, Acts 5:29; οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς (καί οἱ πρεσβύτεροι Rec.) καί τό συνέδριον ὅλον, Matthew 26:59; καί δικαιώμασι σαρκός, Hebrews 9:10 Rec. Tr brackets WH marginal reading; καί ἐπί τόν Ἰσραήλ τοῦ Θεοῦ, Galatians 6:16, and often in Greek writings; cf. Winers Grammar, 437f (407); 520f (485); (Buttmann, 363 (311f); 400 (343)); with τέ preceding, τέ ... αὐτοῦ δύναμις καί θειότης, Romans 1:20 (see τέ, 2 a.); and, on the other hand, it joins to a general idea something particular, which is already comprised indeed in that general notion but by this form of expression is brought out more emphatically (which Strabo 8 (1), p. 340 calls συνκαταλέγειν τό μέρος τῷ ὅλῳ); so that it is equivalent to and especially (cf. Winer's Grammar, as above): τά πάντα καί τά τῶν δαιμονιζομένων, Matthew 8:33; τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ καί τῷ Πέτρῳ, Mark 16:7; αἱ φωναί αὐτῶν καί τῶν ἀρχιερέων, Luke 23:23 (R G); σύν γυναιξί καί Μαριάμ, Acts 1:14; ἐν Ιουδα καί Ἱερουσαλήμ, 1 Macc. 2:6; πᾶς Ιουδα καί Ἱερουσαλήμ, 2 Chronicles 35:24, cf. 32:33; often so in Greek writings also.

2. It connects clauses and sentences;

a. universally, as διακαθαριεῖ τήν ἅλωνα αὐτοῦ καί συνάξει τόν σῖτον κτλ., Matthew 3:12; εἰσῆλθον ... καί ἐδίδασκον, Acts 5:21; and in innumerable other examples b. In accordance with the simplicity of the ancient popular speech, and especially of the Hebrew tongue, it links statement to statement, the logical relations of which the more cultivated language expresses either by more exact particles, or by the use of the participial or the relative construction (cf. Winers Grammar, § 60, 3; Buttmann, 288 (248ff); 361f (310f)): e. g. that very frequent formula ἐγένετο ... καί (see γίνομαι, 2 b.); καί εἶδον καί (equivalent to ὅτι) σεισμός ἐγένετο, Revelation 6:12; τέξεται υἱόν καί καλέσεις τό ὄνομα αὐτοῦ (equivalent to οὗ ὄνομα καλέσεις), Matthew 1:21; καλόν ἐστιν ἡμᾶς ὧδε εἶναι, καί (equivalent to ὅθεν) ποιήσωμεν σκηνάς, Mark 9:5; clauses are thus connected together in clusters; as, Matthew 7:25, 27 (an example of six clauses linked together by καί); Matthew 14:9ff; Mark 1:12-14; Luke 18:32-34; John 2:13-16; John 10:3; 1 Corinthians 12:5-6; Revelation 6:2, 8, 12-16; Revelation 9:1-4 (where nine sentences are strung together by καί), etc. after a designation of time καί annexes what will be or was done at that time: ἤγγικεν ὥρα καί παραδίδοται κτλ., Matthew 26:45; ἦν δέ ὥρα τρίτῃ καί ἐσταύρωσαν αὐτόν, Mark 15:25; ἐγγύς ἦν τό πάσχα ... καί ἀνέβη εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα Ἰησοῦς, John 2:13; ἡμέραι ἔρχονται καί συντελέσω, Hebrews 8:8; add, Luke 23:44; John 4:35; John 5:1; John 11:55; Acts 5:7; and not infrequent so in Greek writings, as ἤδη δέ ἦν ὀψέ καί οἱ Κορίνθιοι ἐξαπίνης πρυμναν ἀκρουοντο, Thucydides 1, 50; cf. Matthiae, § 620, 1 a., p. 1481; Winers Grammar, 430 (405f); (Buttmann, 301 (310)).

c. it joins affirmative to negative sentences, as μή συνκοφαντησατε καί ἀρκεῖσθε, Luke 3:14; οὔτε ἄντλημα ἔχεις καί τό φρέαρ ἐστι βαθύ, John 4:11; οὔτε ... ἐπιδέχεται καί ... κωλύει, 3 John 1:10 (rarely so in Greek writings, as Euripides, Iph. Taur. 578; cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2, p. 714); much more often it annexes a clause depending on the preceding negative: μήποτε σε παραδῷ ... καί κριτής σε παραδῷ ... καί εἰς φυλακήν βληθήσῃ, Matthew 5:25; add, Matthew 7:6; Matthew 10:38; Matthew 13:15; Matthew 27:64; Luke 12:58; Luke 21:34; John 6:53; John 12:40; Acts 28:27; 1 Thessalonians 3:5; 1 Timothy 6:1; Hebrews 12:15; Revelation 16:15; (see Buttmann, 368 (315)

d.; cf. Winers Grammar, § 56, 2 a.).

d. it annexes what follows from something said before (καί consecutive), so as to be equivalent to and so: Matthew 5:15 (καί λάμπει); Matthew 23:32 (καί πληρώσατε); 2 Corinthians 11:9 (καί ἐν παντί); Hebrews 3:19; 1 John 3:19 (καί ἔμπροσθεν); 2 Peter 1:19 (καί ἔχομεν); so in statements after imperatives and words having the force of an imperative: δεῦτε ὀπίσω μου, καί ποιήσω ὑμᾶς etc. Matthew 4:19; εἶπε λόγῳ, καί ἰαθήσεται παῖς μου, Matthew 8:8; Luke 7:7; (ἀντισητε τῷ διαβόλῳ καί φεύξεται ἀφ' ὑμῶν, James 4:7; add, Matthew 7:7; Mark 6:22; Luke 10:28; John 14:16; Revelation 4:1; cf. Fritzsche on Matthew, pp. 187 (and 416) (cf. Sir. 2:6 Sir. 3:17).

e. with a certain rhetorical emphasis, it annexes something apparently at variance with what has been previously said; so that it is equivalent to and yet (cf. Stallbaum on Plato, Apology, p. 29 b.); so the Latinatque (cf. Beier on Cicero, de off. 3, 11, 48): Matthew 3:14 (καί σύ ἔρχῃ πρός με); Matthew 6:26; Matthew 10:29; Mark 12:12; John 1:5 (καί σκοτία κτλ.); John 1:10 (καί κόσμος); John 3:11, 32; John 5:40 (καί οὐ θέλετε); John 6:70; John 7:28; John 8:49, 55 (καί οὐκ ἐγνώκατε); John 9:30; 1 Corinthians 5:2; 2 Corinthians 6:9; Hebrews 3:9; Revelation 3:1 ( ... ζῇς, καί νεκρός εἰ), etc. when a vain attempt is spoken of: Matthew 12:43 (ζητεῖ καί οὐχ εὑρίσκει); ; Luke 13:7; 1 Thessalonians 2:18.

f. like the Hebrew וְ (see Gesenius, Thesaurus, i., p. 396{a}), it begins an apodosis, which is thus connected with the protasis, cf. the German da (or English then) (in classical Greek sometimes δέ; see δέ, 8) (cf. Buttmann, 362 (311)

d.; Winer's Grammar, § 53, 3 f.; Ellicott on Philippians 1:22): with ὅτε or a temporal ὡς preceding in the protasis (as sometimes in Greek prose (e. g. Thucydides 2, 93, where see Krüger)), Luke 2:21; Acts 13:18f (here WH text omit καί; see ὡς, I. 7); ὡς ... καί ἰδού, Luke 7:12; Acts 1:10; Acts 10:17 (R G Tr marginal reading brackets); ἐάν ... καί εἰσελεύσομαι, Revelation 3:20 T WH marginal reading, although here καί may be rendered also (I also will come in, etc.), declaring that, if the first thing (expressed in the protasis) be done, the second (expressed in the apodosis) will be done also.

g. as in classical Greek, it begins a question thrown out with a certain impassioned abruptness and containing an urgent rejoinder to another's speech (cf. Winers Grammar, § 53, 3 a.; Matthiae, § 620, 1 d.; Kühner, § 521, 3 ii., p. 791f): καί τίς δύναται σωθῆναι; Mark 10:26; καί τίς ἐστι μου πλησίον; Luke 10:29; καί τίς ἐστιν κτλ., John 9:36 (G T Tr WH); add, John 14:22 (G T). Peculiar is 2 Corinthians 2:2: εἰ γάρ ἐγώ λυπῶ ὑμᾶς, καί τίς ... ἐμοῦ (a swarm of examples of this form of speech occur in Clement. homil. 2, 43, e. g. εἰ Θεός ψεύδεται, καί τίς ἀληθευει;) where the writer after the conditional protasis, interrupting himself as it were, utters the substance of the negative apodosis in a new question, where we render who then is he that etc., for then there is no one who etc. h. it introduces parentheses (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 62, 1): καί ἐκωλύθην ἀξρηι τοῦ δεῦρο, Romans 1:13 (Demosthenes, Lept., p. 488, 9; so the Latinet, e. g.praeda — et aliquantum ejus fuit — militi concessa, Livy 27, 1); cf. Fritzsche, Ep. ad Romans, i., p. 35f.

3. It annexes epexegetically both words and sentences (καί epexegetical or 'explicative'), so that it is equivalent to and indeed, namely (Winer's Grammar, § 53, 3 e.; cf. § 66, 7 at the end): χάριν καί ἀποστολήν, Romans 1:5, where cf. Fritzsche; περί ἐλπίδος καί ἀναστάσεως νεκρῶν, Acts 23:6; πολλά ... καί ἑτέρα, Luke 3:18; πολλά ... καί ἀλλά σημεῖα, John 20:30; πολλά καί βαρέα αἰτιώματαa, Acts 25:7; πολλοί καί ἀνυπότακτοι, Titus 1:10 (R G; on the preceding use of καί cf. πολύς, d. α. at the end); καί (L brackets καί) ὅταν ἀπαρθῇ, and indeed (i. e. viz.) when he shall be taken away etc. Luke 5:35 (others find here an aposiopesis; cf. Meyer at the passage (edited by Weiss)); καί χάριν, ἀντί χάριτος, John 1:16; καί περισσόν ἔχωσιν, John 10:10, add 33 (where the words καί ὅτι κτλ. show what kind of blasphemy is meant); Acts 5:21 (on which see γερουσία); Romans 2:15 (where καί μεταξύ κτλ. adds an explanation respecting the testimony of conscience); 1 Corinthians 3:5; 1 Corinthians 15:38, etc.; cf. Bornemann, Scholia, p. 38; Fritzsche, Quaest. Lucian, p. 9ff; so the Latinet in Cicero, Tusc. 3, 20, 48laudat, et saepe, virtutem; pro Mil. 25te enim jam appello et ea voce ut me exaudire possis; cf. Ramshorn, Latin Gram. ii., p. 809; (Harpers' Latin Dict. under the word et, II. A.); equivalent to and indeed, to make a climax, for and besides: καί ἀκατάκριτον, Acts 22:25; καί τοῦτον ἐσταυρωμένον, 1 Corinthians 2:2; καί τοῦτο, Latinidque (Cicero, off. 1, 1, 1te ... audientem Cratippum idque Athenis), our and this, and that, and that too, equivalent to especially: Romans 13:11; 1 Corinthians 6:6, and L T Tr WH in 8 (4 Macc. 14:9); also καί ταῦτα (common in Greek writings), 1 Corinthians 6:8 Rec.; Hebrews 11:12; cf. Klotz, Devar. i., p. 108; it. 2, p. 652f; (cf. Winer's Grammar, 162 (153)).

4. it connects whole narratives and expositions, and thus forms a transition to new matters: Matthew 4:23; Matthew 8:14, 23, 28; Matthew 9:1, 9, 27, 35; Matthew 10:1; Mark 5:1, 21; Mark 6:1, 6; Luke 8:26; John 1:19 (cf. ); 1 John 1:4, etc.; especially in the very common καί ἐγένετο, Matthew 7:28; Luke 7:11; Luke 8:1, etc. (see γίνομαι, 2 b.).

5. καί ... καί, a repetition which indicates that of two things one takes place no less than the other: both ... and, as well ... as, not only ... but also (Winer's Grammar, § 53, 4): it serves to correlate — not only single terms, as καί (L brackets καί) ψυχήν καί σῶμα, Matthew 10:28; add, Mark 4:41; John 4:36 (here Tr WH omit first καί); Romans 11:33; Philippians 2:13; Philippians 4:12, etc.; καί ἐν ὀλίγῳ καί πολλῷ (L T Tr WH μεγάλῳ) both with little effort and with great (but see μέγας, 1 a. γ. at the end), Acts 26:29; but also clauses and sentences, as Mark 9:13; John 7:28; John 9:37; John 12:28; 1 Corinthians 1:22; and even things that are contrasted (cf. Winers Grammar, as above; Buttmann, § 149, 8 b.): John 15:24; Acts 23:3; καί ... καί οὐ, Luke 5:36; John 6:36; now ... now, Mark 9:22; καί οὐ ... καί, John 17:25.

6. τέ ... καί, see τέ, 2.

II. It marks something added to what has already been said, or that of which something already said holds good; accordingly it takes on the nature of an adverb, also (Latinetiam, quoque, German auch (cf. Winers Grammar and Buttmann's Grammar, as at the beginning In this use it generally throws an emphasis upon the word which immediately follows it; cf. Klotz, Devar. ii. 2, p. 638.));

1. used simply,

a. also, likewise: Matthew 5:39; Matthew 12:45; Mark 2:28; Luke 3:14; John 8:19; Romans 8:17; 1 Corinthians 7:29; 1 Corinthians 11:6, etc.; very frequent with pronouns: καί ὑμεῖς, Matthew 20:4, 7; Luke 21:31; John 7:47, etc.; κἀγώ, καί ἐγώ, see κἀγώ, 2; καί αὐτός, see αὐτός, I. 1 a. preceded by an adverb of comparison in the former part of the sentence: καθώς ... καί, Luke 6:31 (WH text omit; L Tr marginal reading brackets, καί ὑμεῖς); John 6:57; John 13:15, 33; 1 John 2:18; 1 John 4:17; 1 Corinthians 15:49; ὥσπερ ... οὕτω καί, Romans 11:30; 1 Corinthians 15:22; Galatians 4:29; καθάπερ ... οὕτω καί, 2 Corinthians 8:11; ὡς ... καί, Matthew 6:10; Luke 11:2 R L brackets; Acts 7:51 (L καθώς; 2 Corinthians 13:2 see ὡς, L 1 at the end); Galatians 1:9; Philippians 1:20 (Thucydides 8, 1; ὥσπερ ... καί, Xenophon, mem. (2, 2, 2 (and Kühner, at the passage)); 3, 1, 4; (4, 4, 7; cf. Buttmann, 362 (311)

c.)); with εἰ; preceding, Galatians 4:7. sometimes καί stands in each member of the comparison: 1 Thessalonians 2:14; Romans 1:13; Colossians 3:13 (2 Macc. 2:10 2Macc. 6:14; also in Greek writings, cf. Klotz ad Dev. ii. 2, p. 635; Kühner, on Xenophon, mem. 1, 1, 6 (also in his Greek Gram. § 524, 2 vol. ii. 799; cf. Ellicott on Ephesians 5:23; Winers Grammar, § 53, 5)).

b. equivalent to even (A. V. sometimes yea) (Latinvel, adeo; German sogar, selbst): Matthew 5:46; Matthew 10:30; Mark 1:27; Luke 10:17; 1 Corinthians 2:10; Galatians 2:17; Ephesians 5:12, etc.

c. before a comparative it augments the gradation, even, still (German noch): Matthew 11:9; (John 14:12); Hebrews 8:6 (Buttmann, 363 (311) g.; others regard the καί in this passage as corresponsive (also) rather than ascensive, and connect it with ὅσῳ).

d. with a participle equivalent to although (cf. Krüger, § 56, 13, 2): Luke 18:7 R G (see μακροθυμέω, 2).

2. joined with pronouns and particles, also;

a. with comparative adverbs: ὡς καί, Acts 11:11; 1 Corinthians 7:7; 1 Corinthians 9:5, etc.; καθώς καί, Romans 15:7; 1 Corinthians 13:12; 2 Corinthians 1:14; Ephesians 4:17, 32; Ephesians 5:2, etc.; οὕτω καί, Romans 5:15 (WH brackets καί), 18f; 6:11; 1 Corinthians 11:12, etc.; ὁμοίως καί, John 6:11; ὡσαύτως καί, Luke 22:20 (R G L Tr marginal reading, T Tr text WH καί ὡς. (but WH reject the passage)); 1 Corinthians 11:25; καθάπερ καί (see καθάπερ).

b. added to words designating the cause, it marks something which follows of necessity from what has been previously said: διό καί, Luke 1:35; Acts 10:29; Romans 1:24 Rec.; Hebrews 13:12; (1 Peter 2:6 R); διά τοῦτο καί, Luke 11:49; John 12:18 (here Tr text omit; Tr marginal reading brackets καί).

c. after the interrogative τί, καί (which belongs not to τί, but to the following word (to the whole sentence, rather; cf. Bäumlein, Partikeln: p. 152)) points the significance of the question, and may be rendered besides, moreover, (German noch) (cf. Winers Grammar, § 53, 3 a. at the end; especially Krüger, § 69, 32, 16): τί καί βαπτίζονται; (A. V. why then etc.), 1 Corinthians 15:29; τί καί ἐλπίζει; (properly, why doth he also or yet hope for, and not rest in the sight?), Romans 8:24 (R G T); ἵνα τί καί, Luke 13:7.

d. ἀλλά καί, but also: Luke 24:22; John 5:18; Romans 1:32; Romans 5:3, 11; Romans 8:23; Romans 9:10; 2 Corinthians 7:7; 2 Corinthians 8:10, 19, 21; 2 Corinthians 9:12; 1 John 2:2, etc.; equivalent to Latinat etiam (in an apodosis after εἰ): Romans 6:5 (Winers Grammar, 442 (412)).

e. δέ καί, and δέ ... καί, but also, and also: Matthew 3:10 (R G); ; Mark 14:31 (WH brackets δέ); Luke 2:4; Luke 9:61; Luke 14:12, 26 (L text Tr WH ἔτι τέ καί, see ἔτι, 2 at the end); (R G), (L brackets καί); John 2:2; John 3:23; John 18:2, 5; Acts 5:16; 1 Corinthians 1:16; 1 Corinthians 4:7; 1 Corinthians 14:15; 1 Corinthians 15:15; 2 Corinthians 4:3, etc. καί ... γάρ, ἐάν καί, εἰ καί, καί, καίγε, καί ... δέ, see γάρ II. 10, ἐάν I. 3, εἰ III. 6f, 4 c., γέ 3 e., δέ 9. The examples of crasis with καί in the N. T., viz. κἀγώ (κἀμοί, κἀμέ), κἀκεῖ, κἀκεῖθεν, κἀκεῖνος, κἄν, are noticed each in its place; for references see especially κἀγώ, at the beginning