Word Summary
ephod: an ephod
Original Word: אֵפוֹד
Transliteration: ephod
Phonetic Spelling: (ay-fode')
Part of Speech: Noun Masculine
Short Definition: an ephod
Meaning: a girdle, the ephod, highpriest's shoulder-piece, an image
Strong's Concordance

Rarely oephod {ay-fode'}; probably of foreign derivation; a girdle; specifically the ephod or high-priest's shoulder- piece; also generally, an image -- ephod.


H646. ephod

אֵפוֺד‎ (28 t.) & אֵפֹד‎ (20 t.) noun masculineExodus 28:7 ephod (Ethiopic compare Aramaic id. (on meaning see Lagl.c.), perhaps also Assyrian pid, pittu ZimBP 39; on form see Ges§ 84a 12. R. but Lagl.c. compares , & thinks אֵפוֺד‎ shortened from הָא ׳חֵשֶׁב‎ 'robe of approach to God) — ׳א‎ absolute 25:7 +; construct 1 Samuel 2:18 +; —

1 ephod, priestly garment, shoulder-cape or mantle; a. as worn by ordinary priest made of white stuff (בַּד‎) 1 Samuel 22:18; א ׳נֹשֵׂא‎ compare

2; so Samuel as a temple-servant 1 Samuel 2:8; א ׳חָגוּרgirt with an eph.; so David when dancing before ark 2 Samuel 6:14 (id.) 1 Chronicles 15:27 א דוד ׳וְעַל‎; b. as prescribed in P for high priest, more costly, woven of gold, blue, purple, scarlet, & linen (? שֵׁשׁ‎)threads, provided with shoulder-pieces & breast-piece of like material, ornamented with gems and gold, Exodus 25:7; 28:4, 6, 12, 15; 29:5; 35:9, 27 17t. Exodus 28, 39, also Leviticus 8:7; compare probably 1 Samuel 2:28 (א ׳נֹשֵׂא‎) 14:3; 21:10 (see below 2); הָא ׳חֵשֶׁבExodus 28:27-28, 29:5; 39:20-21, Leviticus 8:7; הָא ׳מְעִיל‎ Lev 29:5; Lev 39:22 (compare 8:7); with verb אֶתהָֿא ׳נָתַן עַלֿput the ephod on Aaron 8:7. 2 ephod used in consulting ׳י1 Samuel 23:6 ׳א‎ borne in hand (read ᵐ5 וְהָא ׳יָרַד בְּיָדוֺ‎ We Dr) 23:9; 30:7 (twice in verse) (all with חִגִּישׁ‎) + 14:18 (הגישׁ‎) & 14:18, in both read ׳הָא‎ for ארון‎ & 14:18 also ᵐ5 נֹשֵׂא‎ Klo Dr; a. according to Thes MV Di Exodus 28:6 and elsewhere properly below 1b; consultation of ׳י‎ in that case by Urim & Thummim in the breast-piece attached to the ephod (compare 28:28-30 & see אוּרִים‎); if so, in view of נשׂא1 Samuel 2:28; 14:3, 18 (compare above), not used elsewhere = wear except 22:18, & of 23:6, the word might be used by metonymy for the breast-piece itself; b. others, e.g. StaGeschichte i. 466, 471 BuRS 115 and others, think of an image representing ׳י‎; compare following.

3. a. ephod of gold made by Gideon Judges 8:27 for a local sanctuary, by which Israel was ensnared; = 2b according to ᵑ6‎ Thes ('sine controversia') Stu and others + Sta Bu 1.c.; originally = gold sheathing of an image (compare etymology above & Isaiah 30:22 below אֲפֻדָּה‎); MV Be KöHauptprobleme 59 think of garment, as below 1 see above

b. made (material not given) for a private, local sanctuary Judges 17:5; 18:14, 17, 18, 20 ("" תְּרָפִים מַסֵּכָה, מֶּסֶל,‎ in all, for ᵐ5‎ gives מַסֵּכָה18:20, omitted by HCT); compare Hosea 3:4 Israel shall abide without king, prince, sacrifice, pillar, ephod or teraphim; according to Thes and others + Sta Bu l.c. = 2b; Stu Be Ry and others regard as below

1; in view of distinction from מסכה פסל,‎ & תרפים‎ it seems more likely that this is not an image, but some means of consulting deity, perhaps in imitation of Urim & Thummim.